Data Collection & Database Organization

Data for all the indicators identified in the previous step have been gathered by sources provided by international institutions. The huge amount of missing data prevented the creation of a solid time series for all SDG indicators. Thus, the current database considers only the latest available data.

The table below reports, for each indicator, the source used for data gathering and the number of countries covered. Only 139 countries report data for all the indicators considered.

The current indicator values are finally integrated into the socio-economic database (GTAP8), which works as the starting point upon which to build scenarios for assessing future sustainability worldwide.

APPS Indicator
Sources
Countries coverage
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP2005) (% of population)
World Development Indicators / Millennium Development Goals Database
171
Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population)
World Development Indicators / Millennium Development Goals Database
178
Physician density (per 1000 population)
World Health Organization
194
Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) at birth (years)
World Health Organization
194
Youth literacy rate ( % of population 15-24 years)
UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
197
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal renewable water)
World Development Indicators
205
Access to electricity (% of total population)
World Development Indicators
245
Renewable electricity (% in total electricity output)
World Development Indicators
215
Primary energy intensity (MJ / $PPP2011)
World Development Indicators
193
GDP per capita annual growth (%)
International Monetary Fund / World Development Indicators
225
GDP per person employed ($PPP2011)
International Monetary Fund / World Development Indicators
205
Employment-to-population ratio (%)
World Development Indicators
207
Manufacturing value added ( % of GDP)
World Development Indicators
185
Total energy and industry-related GHG emissions over sectoral value added (t of CO2e / $PPP2011)
World Development IndicatorsInternational Monetary Fund /  CAIT (WRI Climate Data Explorer)
177
Palma ratio
World Development Indicators
168
PM2.5 pollution, mean annual exposure (micrograms per cubic meter)
World Development Indicators
204
CO2 intensity of residential and transport sectors (t of CO2 / t of oil equivalent energy use)
International Energy Agency
179
Material productivity ($PPP2011/ kg)
World Development Indicators / International Monetary Fund / GMWD SERI/WU Global Material Flows Database.
178
Net GHG emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors per square metre of forest and agricultural land (t of CO2e / sq. m)
UN Food and Agriculture Organization / World Development Indicators
209
Compliance to Conditional INDCs*
CAIT (WRI Climate Data Explorer) / World Development Indicators
183
Gap from equitable and sustainable GHG emissions per capita in 2030 (t CO2eq)**
CAIT (WRI Climate Data Explorer) / World Development Indicators / UN (2015)
176
Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters)
Millennium Development Goals Database
238
Terrestrial protected areas (% of total land area)
Millennium Development Goals Database
226
Forest area (% of land area)
World Development Indicators
241
Endangered and vulnerable (animals and plants) species (% of total species)
International Union for Conservation of Nature
222
Corruption Perception Index
Transparency International
188
General government gross debt (% of GDP)
International Monetary Fund
184
Research and development (R&D) expenditure (% of GDP)
World Development Indicators
186
*This indicator is used only in the assessment of Future Sustainability
** The equitable and sustainable GHG emission per capita level in 2030 is computed as the ratio of the median GHG emission level in 2030 according to scenarios that will contain (with likelihood > 66%) the temperature increase below 2°C by the end of the century , i.e. 42 GtCO2 e (UNEP, 2015), and the median estimate of world population in 2030 (UN, 2015).