APPS Indicators Computation

For current well-being assessment, we compute the 27 APPS Indicators relying upon available statistics.

For evaluating future sustainability, all indicators are introduced into the modelling framework. Their future trends are linked to the dynamics of macro-economic variables in the model.  This way, indicator future paths are strongly rooted in the broader context of socio-economic-environmental reference scenarios.

The table below describes the modeling behavior of APPS Indicators.

APPS Indicator
Modeling Behaviour
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP2005) (% of population)
Average Income per capita and Gini index
Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population)
Food Expenditure per capita
Physician density (per 1000 population)
Health Value Added per capita
Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) at birth (years)
Physician density, Education attainment, GDP per capita
Youth literacy rate (% of population 15-24 years)
Education Expenditure per capita
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal renewable water)
Domestic Demand of Water by agents (Households, Industry, Agriculture)
Access to electricity (% of total population)
GDP per capita
Renewable electricity (% in total electricity output)
Supply of Electricity from Renewables and Total Electricity
Primary energy intensity (MJ / $PPP2011)
Total Primary Energy Supply and Real GDP
GDP per capita growth (%)
GDP and Population
GDP per person employed ($PPP2011)
GDP and Employed Population
Employment-to-population ratio (%)
Exogenous source (SSPs, ILO)
Manufacturing value added (% of GDP)
Value Added in Manufacturing and GDP
Total energy and industry-related GHG emissions over sectoral value added (t of CO2e / $PPP2011)
Industrial Emissions and Value Added in the Industrial sector
Palma ratio
Sectoral Value Added and Education Expenditure per capita
PM2.5 pollution, mean annual exposure (micrograms per cubic meter)
Energy Use in Transport and Construction sectors
CO2 intensity of residential and transport sectors (t of CO2 / t of oil equivalent energy use)
Demand of Fossil Fuels and Emissions in Residential and Transport sectors
Material productivity ($PPP2011/ kg)
Material (mining) Use in Heavy Industry sector and GDP
Net GHG emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors per square metre of forest and agricultural land (t of CO2e / sq. m)
Exogenous (SSPs)
Compliance to Conditional INDCs*
GHG Emissions
Gap from equitable and sustainable GHG emissions per capita in 2030 (t CO2eq)**
GHG Emissions
Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters)
Terrestrial protected areas (% of total land area)
Forest area (% of land area)
Land use in the Forestry sector
Endangered and vulnerable (animals and plants) species (% of total species)
CO2 emissions
Corruption Perception Index
General government gross debt (% of GDP)
GDP and Government Expenditure
Research and development (R&D) expenditure (% of GDP)
R&D Value Added and GDP
*This indicator is used only in the assessment of Future Sustainability
** The equitable and sustainable GHG emission per capita level in 2030 is computed as the ratio of the median GHG emission level in 2030 according to scenarios that will contain (with likelihood > 66%) the temperature increase below 2°C by the end of the century , i.e. 42 GtCO2 e (UNEP, 2015), and the median estimate of world population in 2030 (UN, 2015).